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Kullaba dates to the Eridu period when it was one of the oldest and most important cities of Sumer.

There are different interpretations about the purposes of the temples.

Although other settlements coexisted with Uruk, they were generally about 10 hectares while Uruk was significantly larger and more complex.

The Uruk period culture exported by Sumerian traders and colonists had an effect on all surrounding peoples, who gradually evolved their own comparable, competing economies and cultures.

The original city of Uruk was situated southwest of the ancient Euphrates River, now dry.

Currently, the site of Warka is northeast of the modern Euphrates river.

The change in position was caused by a shift in the Euphrates at some point in history, and may have contributed to the decline of Uruk.

In the Epic of Gilgamesh, Gilgamesh builds the city wall around Uruk and is king of the city. In myth and literature, Uruk was famous as the capital city of Gilgamesh, hero of the Epic of Gilgamesh. The site of Uruk was visited in 1849 by William Kennett Loftus who led the first excavations from 1850 to 1854, and had identified it as "Erech", known as "the second city of Nimrod". The city lost its prime importance around 2000 BC, in the context of the struggle of Babylonia with Elam, but it remained inhabited throughout the Seleucid and Parthian periods until it was finally abandoned shortly before or after the Islamic conquest. For other uses, see Uruk (disambiguation).) was an ancient city of Sumer and later Babylonia, situated east of the present bed of the Euphrates river, on the dried-up, ancient channel of the Euphrates River, some 30 km east of modern Samawah, Al-Muthannā, Iraq. Uruk played a leading role in the early urbanization of Sumer in the mid 4th millennium BC. 2900 BC, Uruk probably had 50,000–80,000 residents living in 6 km The legendary king Gilgamesh, according to the chronology presented in the Sumerian king list, ruled Uruk in the 27th century BC.

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